Terms of service
Alternative civil service is a special type of labour activity for the benefit of the state and society. Any citizen of the Russian Federation has the right to substitute military service with alternative civil service in case the former is in contradiction with his beliefs or confession as well as in other cases provided for by the Federal law (Constitution of the Russian Federation, Article 59, Part 3, extract).
The citizens can either do their alternative civil service individually or in groups or units:
- in organizations under the jurisdiction of federal executive authorities;
- in organizations under the jurisdiction of executive authorities of the subjects of the Russian Federation;
- in organizations of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, other forces, military units and authorities as civil personnel.
As a rule, the citizens do their alternative civil service outside the subject of the Russian Federation where they are residents.
Within the framework of alternative civil service the citizens who belong to smaller indigenous peoples are assigned to serve in organizations of traditional industries and trades.
For the citizens assigned to alternative civil service from January 01, 2008 the service period is:
- 21 months for the citizens doing their alternative civil service in organizations under the jurisdiction of federal executive authorities and executive authorities of the subjects of the Russian Federation.
- 18 months for the citizens doing their alternative civil service in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, other forces, military units and authorities.
Any citizen has the right to apply to his Enlistment Office for the substitution of Draft with alternative civil service in the following time:
- Before April 1, for those who are to be drafted in October-December of the current year;
- Before October 1, for those who are to be drafted in April-June of the next year.
In case a citizen had a deferment from military service, which should have been expired after the end of the regular Draft, i.e. after July 15 or December 31, but for some reason the grounds for such deferment were terminated prematurely (for example, expulsion from a university), the law provides for a possibility of such citizen to apply for the substitution of Draft with alternative civil service after April 1 or October 1 within 10 days from the date of termination. If it is known in advance that the determent expires after April 1 or October 1 but before the end of regular Draft, the application should be filed on usual terms before April 1 or October 1 accordingly.
A failure to file the application in due time may serve the reason for refusal of alternative civil service in substitution of military service.
The application should be duly registered by the Enlistment Officer responsible for registration of incoming documents. The Enlistment Office is obliged to provide a citizen with a document confirming registration of his application.
A citizen wishing to substitute military service with alternative civil service should provide justification that military service contradicts his beliefs or confession. The candidate for alternative civil service should mention this justification in the application where he also states the reasons and circumstances that have made the citizen apply for the right of alternative civil service.
The application should be written in a free form and addressed to the Draft Board of the corresponding district or the city (if the city has no districts). Neither law, no Provision on alternative civil service contains any formal requirements to the content of the application. The applicant has the right to describe his views, his attitude to Draft and alternative civil service, formation of his beliefs and moral principles.
Citizens of Draft age who belong to smaller indigenous peoples may not declare their beliefs if they prefer alternative service. It is sufficient for them to indicate nationality, place of residence and occupation in the application.
The labour activity of the citizens doing their alternative civil service shall be regulated by the Labour Code of the Russian Federation.
While doing alternative civil service, the citizens shall be paid in accordance with the payment system existing in the organization. Such organization shall also provide the citizens with dormitory accommodation. The citizens doing alternative civil service shall be provided with annual paid vacation pursuant to the Labour Code of the Russian Federation. The duration of the vacation shall be increased by a number of calendar days required to travel to and from the place of vacation.
Citizens have the right on free travel by railway, air, sea or car (except for taxi) to the place of alternative civil service, when transferred to a new place of alternative civil service, to and from the place of residence during the annual vacation (once a year), to the place of residence after discharge from alternative civil service. The period of alternative civil service shall be included into the general and continuous record of work and experience record in the same profession.
Citizens doing alternative service are entitled to obligatory state social insurance and state pensions.
Citizens doing alternative service have the right to receive education out of working hours in educational facilities on a correspondence basis or during internal and extra-mural (evening) courses. Citizens who have completed their alternative civil service shall be listed into the reserve of the Armed Forces the Russian Federation and shall not be called up for military training.
The duration of working hours for the citizens doing alternative civil service as well as occupational safety and health regulations shall be established in accordance with the labour laws and other regulatory documents containing the norms of labour law.
Organizations should provide the citizens doing alternative civil service with special clothes, special footwear, other individual protective gear and materials following the procedure, norms and timeframes set forth by the law of the Russian Federation for the relevant type of works.
A citizen being on alternative civil service has the right to file a complaint to the court against illegal acts of the employer as well as public associations, officers and government officials.