The Central Military District (CenMD, CMD) was formed on 1 December 2010 in accordance with the RF President’s Decree of 20 September 2010 “On military-administrative division of the Russian Federation” on the basis of the Volga-Urals Military District and a part of the troops of the Siberian Military District. Its composition also included the 2nd Command of Air Force and Air Defence.
History of the Russian host in the Volga-Urals region goes into the mists of time, to the time of accession in 1552 to Russia of the Kazan Khanate. In the eighteenth century in the border fortresses of the Orenburg region and major cities of the Volga region, the Urals and Western Siberia the first regiments and battalions of the regular Russian army appeared.
However, creation in Russia of the military district system as an integral part of military command and control refers to a later period – the second half of the nineteenth century. In the course of military reform of 1855-1881 Russia's territory was divided into 15 military districts, where artillery, engineer, quartermaster and military medical administrations were created.
During the Civil War and military intervention (1918-1922) on 31 March 1918 the Supreme Military Council of the Russian Republic decided to change the military-administrative division of the country. In May 1918, six military districts were set up, including the Volga and Urals Military Districts (VolMD, UrMD). Siberian Military District (SibMD) was established on 3 December 1919 (in accordance with the Order of the Minister of Defence of 26 November 1993 the historic date of its formation was restored – 6 August 1865).
After the Civil War the troops of the VolMD took part in liquidation of banditry in the Astrakhan, Samara, Saratov, Tsaritsyn provinces and elsewhere in the country, and also fought against basmachi forces in Central Asia.
Formation of the VolMD, UrMD and SibMD in the pre-war years was held in conditions of armament modernisation and organisational restructuring of the Red Army. The main efforts were concentrated on organisation of development of new weapons and equipment, training of specialists, improving efficiency and quality of combat training. Herewith the experience of combat operations near the Lake Khasan, on the Khalkhin Gol River and of the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940 was taken into account. A little bit later – in 1940-1941 – the extensive work on deployment, training and sending of military units to the border military districts was carried out.
The special place in the history of the Volga, Urals and Siberian Military Districts is owned by the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945). In those years, more than 200 military schools were stationed in the territories of the Military Districts, where more than 30% of total command personnel of the army were prepared. There were formed, trained and sent to the front more than 3 thousand associations, formations and military units that participated in combat operations in virtually all fronts and in all the battles of Great Patriotic War (the main and decisive part of the whole World War II): the defence of Moscow, Leningrad, Stalingrad, battle of Kursk, liberation of Ukraine, Belarus, Baltic countries, getting rid of the fascist slavery of nations of Eastern Europe, capture of Berlin, as well as in defeating the Kwantung Army of militarist Japan.
After the Great Patriotic War these Military Districts had done a large volume of actions to receive the returning troops from the front, demobilise and transfer formations, units and facilities in the peacetime establishment. The troops carried out planned combat training, improved training-and-material base. Much attention was paid to the study of war and learning Its lessons, introducing them to the practice of combat training. In 1974, for the great contribution to strengthening the defensive might of the state the VolMD, UrMD and SibMD were awarded the Orders of Red Banner.
On 1 September 1989 the VolMD and the UrMD were united into the Volga-Urals Military District (VolUrMD) with its Staff in the city of Samara. On the base of the former Staff of the UrMD in the city of Yekaterinburg the Staff of the Combined-Arms Army was created. In December 1992, the VolUrMD again was divided in the VolMD and the UrMD, but in 2001 their new unification took place within the Central Military District (CenMD).
Currently, the troops of the CenMD are deployed within the administrative boundaries of the three Federal Districts (Volga, Urals and Siberian ones) in the territories of 29 Subjects of the Russian Federation. It also includes the 201st military base, deployed in the Republic of Tajikistan. The Staff of the CenMD is located in the city of Yekaterinburg.
The Commander of the CenMD controls all military formations of different Services and Arms of the Russian Armed Forces stationed in the zone of the District, with the exception of the Strategic Missile Forces and the Aerospace Defence Forces. The military formations of the Internal Troops of the RF Interior Ministry, the Border Troops of the FSS, the Ministry of Emergency Situations and other Ministries and Agencies of Russia, performing tasks within the territory of the CenMD, are also operationally subordinated to the Commander of the CenMD.